Black Spruce Picea mariana
Pine Pinaceae family

Leaves: Short needles mostly 1/4" to 7/16" long, blue-green, sometimes with a white powder. Twigs are hairy (you may need a hand lens to see this).

Flowers/Fruit: Cones are usually less than 1-1/4"long, somewhat grey-brown with scale edges rather ragged. Cones usually remain on tree for several years and are more abundant near the crown of the tree, forming dense clusters.

Twigs/Bark: Twigs are noticibly dark brown to black which help in distinguishing this spruce from other family members. Bark is thin, scaly, and grayish brown. Dead braches persist on the tree for several years.

Form/Habitat: Black spruce is found in wet, acidic environments such as bogs. Low mat-like forms are found in northern mountains, especially where exposed to severe winds and cold. Small to medium sized for the spruce family and slow growing, height is commonly 25'-30' and diameter at breast height (dbh) 1'-2'.

NWI Status: FACW

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